YOGYAKARTA - JOGJAKARTA








YOGYAKARTA - JOGJAKARTA


Yogyakarta Special Region (Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, DIY) is officially one of Indonesia's 32 provinces. Yogyakarta is one of the foremost cultural centers of Java. This region is located at the foot of the active Merapi volcano, Yogyakarta was in the 16th and 17th centuries the seat of the mighty Javanese empire of Mataram from which present day Yogyakarta has the best inherited of traditions. The city itself has a special charm, which seldom fails to captivate the visitor.


This province is one of the most densely populated areas of Indonesia. The city came into being in 1755, after the Mataram division into the Sultanates of Yogyakarta and Surakarta (Solo). Gamelan, classical and contemporary Javanese dances, wayang kulit (leather puppet), theater and other expressions of traditional art will keep the visitor spellbound. Local craftsmen excel in arts such batiks, silver and leather works. Next to the traditional, contemporary art has found fertile soil in Yogya's culture oriented society. ASRI, the Academy of Fine Arts is the center of arts and Yogyakarta itself has given its name to an important school of modern painting in Indonesia, perhaps best personified by the famed Indonesian impressionist, the late Affandi.


Yogyakarta is often called the main gateway to the Central Java as where it is geographically located. It stretches from Mount Merapi to the Indian Ocean. There is daily air service to Yogya from Jakarta, Surabaya and Bali as well as regular train service and easy accessibility by road. Yogyakarta is commonly considered as the modern cultural of Central Java. Although some may prefer Solo as a good runner up, Yogyakarta remains the clear front-runner for traditional dance, Wayang (traditional puppetry) and music.


Yogyakarta has more than just culture though. It is a very lively city and a shopper's delight. The main road, Malioboro Street, is always crowded and famous for its night street food-culture and street vendors. Many tourist shops and cheap hotels are concentrated along this street or in the adjoining tourist area such Sosrowijayan Street.The key attraction of Yogyakarta is 'Kraton' (the Sultan's Palace). The Sultan's palace is the centre of Yogya's traditional life and despite the advance of modernity; it still emanates the spirit of refinement, which has been the hallmark of Yogya's art for centuries. This vast complex of decaying buildings was built in the 18th century, and is actually a walled city within the city with luxurious pavilions and in which the current Sultan still resides. Yogyakarta is also the only major city, which still has traditional 'Becak' (rickshaw-style) transport.


Geographically Yogyakarta Special Region is geographically located almost equidistant from Indonesia's two most important international gateways, about 600 km from Jakarta and 1000 km from Bali. Yogyakarta also has excellent transport connections by bus, train or plane to the rest of Java, Sumatra, Bali and Lombok. Yogyakarta's Adisucipto Airport is in the process of changing its status in order to receive not only domestics' flights from Bali and Jakarta, but also direct charter and scheduled flights from other countries.


Geographically, Yogyakarta Special Province is situated in the Southern part of Central Java and lies between 7 degree 33' and 8 degree 12', South altitude between 110 degree and 50' East longitude. Some regencies of central Java Province surround the administrative boundaries of this region: Southern East: Wonogiri RegencyEastern: Klaten RegencyNorthwestern: Magelang RegencyWestern: Purworejo RegencyThe Indonesian Ocean borders the Southern part of Yogyakarta. The borderline of the seashore stretches from West to East of which the length is around 100 km, started from Congot Beach in Kulon Progo Regency and ended at Sadeng Beach in Gunung Kidul Regency.


Because of its location, Yogyakarta is strategically positioned for the economic activity network in Java as well as for the tourist destination area. The special region of Yogyakarta lies midway on the axis of several main tourist destination areas, Jakarta and West Java westward, Central Java northward, East Java and Bali eastward. It is linked by regular rail, road and air services to other parts of Indonesian archipelago.


Climate and Weather in Yogyakarta The average daily temperature range between 26 degree and 28 degree Celsius with its minimum 18 degree C and maximum 35 degree C respectively. Average humidity is 74% with its minimum of 65% and maximum 84% respectively. The Yogyakarta Special Region lays approximately 7 South of the equator line and is bathed in tropical; sunshine along the year. This region has a tropic climate the daily atmosphere feels a little bit hot and humid. These are only two seasons along the year, the wet or rainy seasons and dry monsoon. Usually the wet seasons begin at September and lasts about August. Generally there is no rainfalls from may to August and there fore the atmosphere feels hot and humid on the day and cool in the night and early morning. The monthly rain falling Yogyakarta varies between 3mm and 496mm in which those above 300mm take place during the month of January up to April. The heaviest rainfall usually occurs in February while the lowest commonly happens between May and October Average annually rainfall is about 1,900mm.


Populations of YogyakartaBased on 2000, the total population of Yogyakarta special Region amounted to 3.311.812. Yogyakarta Municipality that has 461,800 inhabitants spread over 32,50 kilometers or the average population density is thus over 14,200 persons per square kilometer. The least densely populated districts is in Gunung Kidul regency which has 720.643 inhabitants and cover 1,485 square kilometers or the density rate is 485 persons per square kilometer. Since a very long time ago the Provincial territory of Yogyakarta Special Region and its surrounding has been decently populated.The majority residents of Yogyakarta Special Region are Javanese whose language derives from ancient Sanskrit. However, as Yogyakarta is considered to be "Indonesia's academic city" due to the numerous centers for higher learning, many of the inhabitants are student who come from all over Indonesia to study.


Culture of Yogyakarta The culture Yogyakarta province with its status as a special region lies in the Southern part of Central Java, in the heartland of Javanese culture. As the former capital and the center of several kingdoms in the past, this region and its people are very rich in a variety of cultures. It is widely known from to historical records that the civilization, art and culture had developed well in the center of those kingdoms respectively in the Ancient Mataram Kingdom (8th - 10th Century) era, the second Mataram Kingdom (17th - 18th Century) and Sultanate Ngayogyokarto from the mid of 18th Century up today.


It should be noted that the cultural heritage from the past includes the magnificent temples, the ruins of palaces and monasteries, the various kind of traditions, cultural events, traditional folk and performing arts, architecture and other traditional activities. It is important to note that this is all part of the living culture of Yogyakarta, color of daily activities of live and the local inhabitants behavior, particularly the Javanese community with its traditional way of life and customs. Therefore, because of its culture richness and heritage, Yogyakarta has long been known as the cradle of Javanese culture.


The other legendary name for Yogyakarta City, among the elders as well as the youth generation that is the City of Art and Culture. Traditional and modern exhibition are held almost every day and night about the art of theater, pantomime, music, classic and contemporary dances, poems, etc. Those are flow in the heart of the city. Even more, there are abundant of cultural ceremony, such as Sekaten, Gunungan, Labuhan, Malioboro Fair, etc, which make the city has high value of tradition, art, and culture.




WEST SUMATRA









WEST SUMATRA


West Sumatra is one of the most beautiful areas of Indonesia. It is mountainous and divided by three valleys. There are lovely lakes and spectacular volcanoes. But Minangkabau land is very special and has the most friendly population group of Indonesia. They love to talk with visitors and will tell us about their unique society. If a visitor tries to understand the culture and Minang traditions he will soon feel himself a member of the clan. He will be invited as a guest to their homes - a unique way to become acquainted with real Indonesian life. Most of our hosts and hostesses are English teachers so language will not be much of a problem. They will show us the community and explain their customs.


The land of the Minangkabau, West Sumatra has a distinct culture, which distinguishes it from the rest of the island. A land of scenic beauty with blue green lakes and mountains, West Sumatra's Centre of culture and tourism is Bukittinggi in the highlands, north of the provincial capital of Padang. Most prominent in the landscape is the horn-shaped roofs of the houses nestled in the coconut groves. The name Minangkabau means triumphant buffalo. It leads a community and family life based on a matrilineal system, which clusters around mosques and the traditional houses. As it is the women who have the properties, the men are known for their wanderlust and entrepreneurship. Traveling is considered a mark of success and therefore many of them are found "merantau" (emigrated) to other parts of the country. This is proof that many Minang or Padang restaurants, serve very spicy food, found in all major towns in the nation. The people are hospitable and eloquent in a poetic style of speech and ceremonies. Festivals are colorful occasions.


West Sumatra has a coastline where the capital is situated. The hinterland is a range of high mountains, which dip into picturesque valleys and lakes. Amongst them are the remnants of the old Minangkabau kingdom of Pagaruyung, (the art centers for silver, hand-weaving, embroidery and woodcarving).


Geographically


West Sumatra province has about 49,778 sq km width, which is located between 0o 54' North Latitude and 3o 30' South Latitude and between 98o 36' and 101o 53'. The boundaries of this regency is: North Side: Riau Province South Side: Indian Ocean West Side: North Sumatra Province East Side: Jambi and Bengkulu Province


Wide Area


West Sumatra Province has 42,297.30-km2 areas. The West Sumatran coastline faces the Indian Ocean and stretches 375 km from North Sumatra province in the northwest to Bengkulu in the southeast. West Sumatra lakes include: Maninjau (99.5 km2), Singkarak (130.1 km2), Diatas (31.5 km2), Dibawah (14.0 km2), Talang (5.0 km2). West Sumatra rivers include: Kuranji, Anai, Ombilin, Suliki, Arau. The mountains & volcanoes of West Sumatra are included: Marapi (2,891 m), Sago (2,271 m), Singgalang (2,877 m), Talakmau (2,912 m), Talang (2,572 m), Tandikat (2,438 m).


Climate


The temperature of West Sumatra province has ranges between 22o C and 32o C, and the rainfall is 2,289 mm per year.


Administratively


West Sumatra Province is divided among 8 regencies and 6 municipals with Padang as its capital city.


Demography


The people of this province have a strong tradition leaving their hometown to make their way of life. Indeed, West Sumatra communities (Minang) are easily found in each province of Indonesia. In 1994, the total population reached 4,265,900 people with its density amounted to 101 people per Km2. In the 1990-1994 period, the people grew at a rate 1.6% per year or in the lower level that of the population national growth amounted to 2.144% per year.





WEST IRIAN JAYA



WEST IRIAN JAYA


Irian Jaya is a tropical island with primeval rain forests, powerful rivers, beautiful beaches, lakes, and mountains. The highest mountain is Mount Jayawijaya, with snowcaps covering its 5,000-meter-high peaks. The area is also rich in natural resources, including fish, timber, and precious metals. These, however ever, have become a source of conflict between the central government and local peoples.


West Irian Jaya is a hot, humid island rising from the sea with some of the most impenetrable jungles in the world and yet also has snowcaps covering 5,000meter - High Mountain peaks, towering over glacier lakes. West Irian Jaya is Indonesia's largest and easternmost province and covers the western half of the world's second largest island. It is a land of exceptional natural grandeur, with beautiful scenic beaches, immense stretches of marshlands, cool grassy meadows and powerful rivers carving gorges and tunnels through dark and dense primeval forests. The most heavily populated and cultivated parts of the island are the Paniai Lakes district and the Baliem Valley to the east.


The people of the island can be divided into more than 250 subgroup, which are closely related to the islands along the southern rim of the Pacific and include among others, the Marindanim, Yah'ray, Asmat, Mandobo, Dani and Afyat. Those in the central highlands still maintain their customs and traditions and because of the terrain have virtually been untouched by outside influences. Communications hove always been difficult here and different tribes have lived, for the most part, in isolation even of each other, resulting in an incredibly diverse mixture of cultures.



POPULATION


The province has a population of approximately 800,000, making it one of the least populous of all Indonesian provinces. The capital of Irian Jaya Barat is Manokwari. The most populated and cultivated parts of the island are Paniai Lake district and Baliem Valley to the east. The population comprises migrants from Java and indigenous people from diverse tribes, such as Dani of Baliem Valley in the central highlands, Asmat of the southern coastal region, and Ekari of Wissel Lakes region. The official language is Indonesian, but the indigenous people, reflecting the isolation and small numbers of the tribes, speak at least 250 languages.


GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION

The province contains one city, Sorong, and 8 regencies:
Manokwari
Fak Fak
Sorong Selatan with its capital is Teminabuan
Raja Ampat with its capital is Waisai
Kaimana
Bintuni Bay with its capital is Bintuni
Wondama Bay with its capital is Rasiei
Sorong Regency
Sorong city














WEST JAVA


Of the 17,000 islands that make up the archipelago of the Republic of Indonesia, Java has historically been considered the heartland. Where Java has led-culturally, economically and politically down through the centuries, other regions have followed. On Java, still the most densely populated island of Indonesia, there are five Provinces. West Java is the largest, with the greatest population, and, some would claim, with the most pride.

West Java Province is located at part of western Java Island. The enchanting of Sunda land stretches from Sunda Strait in the west to the borders of Central Java in the east. The locals' people know West Java Province as the Land of Sunda. The region is primarily mountainous, with rich green valleys hugging lofty volcanic peaks, many of which surround the capital of West Java province. The history of West Java is a story of trade, spices, and the rise and fall of powerful kingdoms. In the late 1500's the region was ruled from mighty Cirebon, which still survives as a sultanate today, although a shadow of its former glory. West Java was of the first contact points in Indonesia for Indian traders and their cultural influences, and it was here that the Dutch and British first set foot in the archipelago.



This province has its own unique culture and language, both called Sundanese that is also used to call its people. The ancient kingdoms of Tarumanegara, Pajajaran, Banten and Cirebon would make interesting studies for the student of archaeology. Cirebon is located on the border between West and Central Java, having a mixed culture originating from the ancient Cirebon and Banten kingdoms, resulting in similar customs and dialects of the two people, although Banten is located at the extreme western part of the province.


West Java province its self, is formed based on the Constitution number 11/1950 on the establishment of West Java. With the issuance of Constitution number 23/2000 on Banten Province, West Java Governor Assisting Territory I Banten was inaugurated as Banten Province with its territories comprising Serang Regency, Pandeglang Regency, Lebak Regency, Tangerang Regency and Mayoralty, and Cilegon Mayoralty. After the change, at present West Java consists of 18 regencies, nine mayoralties, 584 districts, 5,201 villages and 609 sub districts.The capital city of West Java province is Bandung city. Bandung is situated 180 km southeast of Jakarta. The city gamed fame in 1955 as the venue for the first Afro-Asian Conference, which brought together the leaders of 29 Asian, and African nations with the aim to promote economic and cultural relations and take a common stand against colonialism.


The road from Jakarta to Bandung passes through a beautiful panorama of mountains, paddy fields and small holiday resorts. An expressway connects the crowded capital city with Bogor and the mountain areas, and onward to Bandung. It has a number of sea resorts on its western and southern coasts, which have modern hotels and are popular during the weekends. The Sundanese people are soft-spoken. The women of the Bandung region are known for their beauty. A lighthearted people who have a love for bright colors, their mournful "kecapi" music is memory of beautiful legends.





The Asmat Shields

The Asmat Shields

Traditionally, shields were carved prior to a headhunting reprisal raid, which was organized to avenge the death of the ancestor for whom the shield was named. A shield always represents an ancestor. It is named after him and the ancestor's spirit is believed to be present in the shield and make the owner fierce, powerful and invincible. Shields are considered so powerful that it may control the owner. Shields also provide spiritual help to the owner in hunting regular prey for food.

A shield is carved out of the lightweight flattened (or plank) buttress root of a mangrove tree-- the root is planed to half an inch thick, except for a protrusion left on one side for a handle. The front of the shield is carved in high relief. They include symbols of wild boar tusks or bones, flying foxes, the tails of tree kangaroos, whirlpools. Some symbols are believed to be so powerful that just by seeing these symbols, the enemy will flee in terror or be immobilized in fear. But such powerful symbols require strict rituals of appeasement. A special feast, the yamas pokumbu is held to call upon the ancestor's spirit to enter the war shields.


The spirit in the shield must be properly treated or it might cause disease, or doom hunting efforts and rot the sago palms. During festivals, shields are decorated with tassels of sago leaves and placed near each other so the spirits may interact. Shields are placed near doorways to protect the home from evil spirits and human intruders.

Shields from different areas have different features: some have a phallic protrusion at the top; others have a symbolic head at the top, yet others add facial features of the ancestor at the top.





The Asmat Drums


Asmat drums are made in exactly the same way that the mythological figure Fumer-ipits is said to have made the drum that brought the Asmat people to life. The drums are carved from a single piece of wood and the handle is decorated with head hunting symbols and covered with the skin of a monitor lizard, attached with an adhesive made from blood and lime. Indeed, the mythological Fumer-ipits was thus not only the first wood carver but also the first drummer.



The hourglass shaped drums take a long time to make and require constant attention as the drum may split during the drying process. Each drum is carved from a solid log being specially selected for its soft centre, which can be easily removed with a hard palm wood stick. A lot of water is needed for this task which is usually performed by the banks of a river preferably at high tide so that the wood chips wash away. Once the centre hole is made, the hourglass shape is obtained by placing hot embers on the wood to burn it slowly. The charred canter is then scraped out afterwards; the exterior is shaped out leaving the curved handles.


Holding the drum close to a fire and allowing the skin to shrink to the correct tension tune a drum. Because of the high humidity, a drum skin loses tension rapidly and needs to be retunaed every twenty to thirty minutes. The picture of the drum is determined by its length and diameter. Each drum can produce only a single tone and so usually a number of drums and drummers are used.







North Sumatera and Toba Lake

NORTH SUMATRA


North Sumatra is one of Indonesia's last surfing frontiers. "North Sumatra" consists of 5 islands or island groups: Hinako Islands, Nias, Telos and 2 other obscure island groups to the north. North Sumatra receives similar swell to Mentawais and enjoys its peak swell season from May to September. Despite Indonesia's reputation for hollow lefts, in North Sumatra right-handers are slightly more prevalent. While Lagundri Bay at Nias has been surfed for decades, it is the more obscure rights like Bawa (a Sunset-like right bowl that holds up to 15 feet) and Treasure Island (a long, hollow, mechanical right peeling for 200 meters) that have attracted the attention of late. Throw a mix of hollow and bowl lefthanders into the picture like Asu, Afulu, the Machine, and many more obscure rights and lefts.

In contrast to the small island of Bali, North Sumatra province is large with one of the biggest lakes in the world, Toba Lake, at its navel. The continuous mountain of Bukit Barisan, which extends from Aceh at the tip of Sumatra island to Lampung at the bottom of the island, guards the province on the west side, providing home for thick, tropical jungles and lush vegetations. As you go down the western mountains towards the beaches of the east, mountain streams, strong rivers, and gorgeous waterfalls will accompany you.

Along the length of this province crosses Bukit Barisan Mountains with peaks of numerous volcanoes. The land has thick virgin forests, lush vegetation, rice fields, mountain streams, rivers, waterfalls and sandy beaches. It has a rich flora and fauna. An abundance of birds, butterflies, buffaloes, deer, mouse deer, orangutans and many other export commodities make North Sumatra one of the richest provinces in Indonesia, as it produces more than 30 % of Indonesia's exports. The province offers the visitors, especially nature lovers, beautiful tropical panoramas, terraced rice fields, blue mountains, jungle covered hills, white sandy beaches, music, dance and folk arts.



Relative to Bali, North Sumatra has very heterogeneous ethnic groups, and thus, cultures. The people of the eastern coasts, also known as the Malays (Melayu) have markedly different traditions and culture from Batak highlanders who live around Toba Lake and Samosir Island. Further south, the Mandailings and Angkolas, and Nias Island, have yet more flavors of traditions and culture. Besides them, there are several ethnic groups who live in Medan and other towns of North Sumatra. Its largest groups are Chinese and Indian, who being naturalized Indonesian citizens. Other Indonesian tribes like Acehnese, Minangkabau, Javanese, etc also live in many parts here. Each of the mentioned tribes as well as the ethnic groups has its own dialect, religion, beliefs, traditional customs, etc. Arts and cultures make this region, a paradise for social scientists. Among the ancient Indonesian cultures, which can be seen at Samosir Island, are the centuries old tombs of Batak Toba kings and a stone-table with its benches, where the Siallagan chiefs formerly held meetings.

Geographically

North Sumatra province has 70,787 sq km width. Geographically, it is located between 1o and 4o North Latitude and between 98o and 100o East Longitude. The area is Borders with:
North side: the special territory of Aceh
South side: West Sumatra Province and Riau Province
West side: Indian Ocean
East side: Malacca Strait

Administratively

North Sumatra Province is divided among 11 regencies, 6 municipals, and 3 administrative towns with Medan as its capital city.

Geology

Composed of coastal areas, lowlands, plateaus, and mountains. Humidity: Varies between 79% and 96%.Climate As one of Indonesia islands, North Sumatra has rainfall of 1,100-3,400 mm per year. It temperature is range between 18o C and 34o C.

Demography

Historically, North Sumatra Province has a migration flow of population either from other provinces because of the existence of heavy plantation in this province or migration to other areas for studying and expanding business. Since population mobility is high, there are multi ethnics on the community. In 1994, the population density of North Sumatra Province reached 157 people per Km2. Compared to the average national population growth (2.144% per year), this province was on the lower level with 1.53% per year. The projection population composition in 1997 can be seen on the following table.


Southeast of Sulawesi

SOUTHEAST SULAWESI

Formerly called the Celebes, Sulawesi is one of the world's most uniquely shaped islands. It is often referred to as the "Orchid Shaped Island". Historically, Sultans ruled this land and the Local area is Governed by regents. Today, Sulawesi is divided into four provinces, one of them being Southeast Sulawesi, covering the lower eastern leg of this beautiful island.

Southeast Sulawesi is an Indonesia province on Sulawesi Island. The capital of the province is Kendari, on the east coast of the peninsula. The province is one of the most remote regions of Sulawesi; no highway connects it to the cities on the rest of the island, so the primary transportation link is a ferry across Bone Sea between Watampone (Bone) in South Sulawesi and Kolaka port.


The population of the province is 1.771,951 (in 2000 Census), most of which is centered on Buton island of the Sulawesi south coast, and around Kendari. From the seventeenth century until the early twentieth century, the region was the site of the Buton (Butung) sultanate.
The Southeast Province is populated by more than 1,2 million people, in five diverse and interesting cultural groups: Tolaki, Morunene, Buton, Muna (Locally called Wuna), and Bajo. All offer the visitor a glimpse of life-styles, which have survived man's rush to modernization while using much of today's technology to their advantage.

Most of the land area of southeast Sulawesi is covered by natural jungle, with extensive plantations of teak and ironwood, which are used for local handicraft and contribute to the local economy. Much of the beauty of the region has been preserved for prosperity by declaring it "National Parks" and "Nature Preserve.

Wonereous animals, living freely, easily seen and appreciated by visitors, inhabit the entire province. Deer, Wild Pigs, Small Rodent-Like animals called Kus-Kus, Monkey, Snakes, Anoa (small buffalo) and numerous varieties of birds abound. But the hunting of animals is forbidden in national parks preserves and carefully controlled by local government, in other areas.
The friendly of the Sulawesi People, the local flora, fauna, and untouched beaches, are the highlights of this unique located. It is truly one of the world's last remaining. Natural habitats are waiting to show for the visitor who can appreciate such natural beauty and the people who live in it.










SOUTH SUMATRA


South Sumatra Province is situated on the eastern side of Bukit Barisan mountain range South Sumatra province is relatively flat, nevertheless fertile, as numerous rivers crisscross and meander through out the region. Palembang is its capital city and as the gateway to the province, lies right on the banks of the great Musi River, 60 km upstream and navigable by oceangoing vessels. No wonder that most major social and economic activities should center in Palembang and Musi River where the region's pride, Ampera Bridge, is found as well.


Because of its sheer location on the southernmost rim of the South China Sea and close to one of world's busiest sea-lanes linking the Far East with Europe, the region's historical background is undoubtedly rich and colorful. Once the very site of the Buddhist Kingdom of Sriwijaya, it practiced a bustling trade with then ancient China during its era dynasties. Inevitable of course, were the interacting forces of the two different cultures at the time, which nowadays are still noticeable as consequences of the past.The visitors can easily reach South Sumatra by air through four major airports at Palembang, Pangkal Pinang, Bangka and Belitung islands, all having direct connections with Medan, Batam, Padang, Jakarta, and not long from now with Singapore too. Air-conditioned buses from points North and West of Palembang are regularly available, as well as from cities on Java and Bali.



Geographically


Geographically, South Sumatra province is located between 1o and 4o South Latitude and between 102o and 108o East Longitude. The boundaries of the area is: North side: South China Sea West side: Jambi Province and Bengkulu Province South side: Lampung Province East side: Java Sea


Administratively


South Sumatra Province is divided among 8 regencies, 2 municipals and 3 administrative towns with Palempang as its capital city.


Temperature


The humidity of south Sumatra province is 78%. The rainfall range is variation between 2,000 - 3,000 mm per year and an average wind velocity of 3.23 km per hour. And the temperature ranges between 21.8o C and 32.2o C.


Demography

A migration flow to this province is supported by the existence of heavy plantation exertion, mining and transmigration program. The population density of this province is 58,8 people per Km2 (1994). Compared to the average national population growth amounted to 2.144% per year, this province was on the lower level with 1.10% per year.
Wide AreaThe area of south Sumatra province is 103,688 sq. km width.



South of Kalimantan



South Borneo - South Kalimantan


South Kalimantan Province is located in Kalimantan Island. South Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. The provincial capital is Banjarmasin. The province has a population of 2.97 million (2000 census).There are 11 regencies in South Kalimantan: Banjar, Tanah Bumbu, Kotabaru, Tanah Laut, Barito Kuala, Tapin, Hulu Sungai Selatan, Hulu Sungai Tengah, Hulu Sungai Utara, Balangan, and Tabalong. This province has an administrative city, Banjarbaru.
Banjarmasin city is the capital of South Kalimantan have face in five dimensions that is; Government Town, Port Town, Commerce Town, Industrial Town and Tourism town. This town is located in tip of south as the gateway of South Kalimantan, occupy lowland which swamps, and stay between 3150 - 3220 south latitudes and between 114 320 - 114 380 east longitudes.


Riparian life is initial individuality from the growth of this town with it river transportation, beside its land transportation that starting rapidly grow.The existence of Flora and Fauna in swamps lowland along the length of the river flowing downstream to go upstream and ridge life is a journey corridor of tourism preoccupying.Floating Market, which is the only one in Indonesia and other world, is unique culture value.


Banjarmasin city, as Tourism town, has big enough potency. National tourism is pledge sector in the economic activity, to enlarge foreign exchange, to extend and smooth down opportunity to try and employment, push development of area, introduce nature and cultural and to have fatherland love.




Tourism of South Sulawesi


SOUTH SULAWESI


South Sulawesi province comprises the narrow southwestern peninsula of this orchid-shaped island, which is mainly mountainous. The seafaring Bugis dominant the southern tip, whereas the northern part of South Sulawesi is inhabited by the Torajas whose unique culture rivals that of the Balinese. Famed for their seafaring heritage and Pinisi schooners for centuries, the Bugis possess to the present day one of the last sailing fleets in the world.


The Bugis vessels have sailed as far as the Australian beach, leaving behind drawings of their ships on stone with words that have been integrated into the Aboriginal language of north Australia. Situated on the crossroads of well-traveled sea-lanes, its capital and chief trading port of Ujung Pandang, till today the gateway to eastern Indonesia. Spanish and Portuguese galleons, followed by British and Dutch traders sailed these seas in search of the spice trade, escorted by their men of war to protect them against the daring raids of the Bugis and Makassar who attacked the intruders.


Ujung Pandang, was formerly Makassar, well known for its Makasar oil from which the English word "antimacassar" evolved for small covers to protect upholstery. The fortifications, which overlook the harbor, were originally built in 1545. Gowa's most famous king is considered a national hero, named Sultan Hasanuddin, the 16th king of Gowa who waged a long and fierce war against the colonial forces.The Tomanurung stone with the inscriptions can still be seen in a plot neighboring the royal graves, near Sungguminasa, formerly the seat of the Gowa kings. The Bugis kingdom of Bone, Wajo and Soppeng and the Makassarase kingdom of Gowa emerged in 13th century. Though interrelated through marriage, Bone and Gowa have for centuries battled against each other. The southern beach is protected by small archipelagoes and has excellent facilities for water sports. These islands have been developed for holiday resorts. Further north, through rugged country is Tana Toraja, often referred to as the "Land of the Heavenly Kings".
An ethnic group who believes that their forefathers descended from heaven onto a mountain some twenty generations ago, the Torajas have a unique culture based on animistic beliefs. Known for their grand burial ceremonies on cliffs or hanging graves, they practice an ancestral cult even today where death and afterlife ceremonies are great feasts when buffaloes are sacrificed in the final death ceremony, after which the deceased's remains are placed in a coffin and interred in caves hollowed out in high cliffs. Lifelike statues, looking out from a “balcony”, guard the mouth of the cave. As death has such an "important meaning" when the souls are released, burials are elaborate and follow feasting days. Rock graves are also a form of burial. A strict hierarchy is followed in the villages.


“Tongkonan” (family houses) are built on stilts with roofs on each end rising like the prows of a ship, representing the cosmos. The mountains offer a fantastic panorama of natural beauty, including the long drive from Ujung Pandang to Tana Toraja. South Sulawesi is also known for its silk industry and silverwork whereas its economy is based on agriculture. Ujung Pandang is easily accessible by air. There are several daily flights from Jakarta and also daily services from Bali, Surabaya and Manado.


GEOGRAPHICALLY


Geographical condition and Territory of South Sulawesi Province is at 0°12' - 8° South Latitude and 116°48' - 122°36' East Longitude. This Province was bounded by:North side: Central Sulawesi East side: Bone Bay and South-East Sulawesi West side: Makassar StraitSouth side: Flores Sea


WIDE AREA


The wide of South Sulawesi province area is 62, 482,54 Km2 (42 % of Sulawesi Island and 4,1 % of Indonesia area).


GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION AREA


Administratively, this Province divided into 23 Regencies and 3 Cities and consists of 290 Districts.


POTENCY


The strategic area in east area of Indonesia has make South Sulawesi functioned as the centre of services, both for east Indonesia area and for international trade. Those services such as; commerce, land transportation, sea transportation, air transportation, education, employment, health service, field research, agricultural, tourism and even financial development.




RIAU Indonesia





RIAU


Riau province is one of the fastest growing parts of Indonesia in terms of economic, population and tourism. Riau Province occupies the central part of eastern region on Sumatra Island, which straddles between Malacca Straits, South China Sea and Berhala Straits. The Province is a strategic region as it directly faces Malacca Straits and Singapore, one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world.


Riau is one of the richest provinces in Indonesia. This province is rich with natural resources, particularly petroleum and natural gas, rubber, and palm oil. The majority of the province is heavily forested lowland; logging is a major industry in the province.



GeographicallyGeographically, Riau Province lies on 445' North Altitude up to 115' South Longitude or 10003' up to 10919' Greenwich and 650' up to 145' West Longitude Jakarta, with natural borders as follows:North side: North Sumatra Province, Malacca StraitsSouth side: Jambi Province West Side: West Sumatra Province East side: Riau Archipelago


Administratively


Riau Province is administratively divided into 9 Regencies (Bengkalis, Indragiri Hilir, Kampar, Kuantan Singingi, Pelalawan, Rokan Hilir, Rokan Hulu, Siak) and 2 cities (Pekanbaru, Dumai), with Pekanbaru as the capital city.


Climate


This region is dominantly characterized by the sea climate with average temperature of 30°C at day and 23°C at night throughout the year. Rainy season falls on November (sometimes October) up to April while dry season begins in July. Riau has tropical climate and in general is classified into climate type "A" with relatively high rainfall, ranging from 2,000 to 3,000 mm per year in average.


Topography Most areas in Riau are lowland plain, including alluvial islands scattered along coastal line with average elevation less than 200 m above sea level. In mainland region, there are four big rivers, i.e. Rokan River, Siak River, Kampar River and Indragiri River. These rivers spring from Bukit Barisan mountain range stretching along the border Riau Province and West Sumatra Province, and flow down to Malacca Straits. The rivers play an important role as the means of transportation, sources of irrigation, energy, and clean water as well as fishery resources. Archipelagic region of Riau, on the other hand, is formed of volcanic formation in the form of islands, big and small. The soil is in general of Organosol type (Histosol), containing much organic substance. Wide Area The territorial size of Riau Province is 329,867.16 km consisting of land area 94,561,61 Km2 and water area 235,306,00 Km2. Riau population is 4,948,000 (2000 census).


Beautifull Island of Raja Ampat




Raja Ampat Island


The Raja Ampat Island in Irian is group spreads out over a huge area and consists of over 610 islands. The four largest islands are Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati and Misool. The area's reefs are covered in a diverse selection of both hard and soft corals. Most of the areas reefs are pristine, with mile after mile of perfect hard corals, drift after drift of soft corals of many species and colors ranging from brilliant red, to shocking yellow pretty pink and exotic purple. Most reef dives are very colorful. The tourist would be able to experience the best dives sites within those islands, which include Cape Kri, Mellisa's Garden, Sardines Reef, The Passage, Nudibranch Rock, Wai Island Night Dive.



Raja Ampat is the western island of Papua Island. The name of Raja Ampat based on the legend. This area had begun with 6 eggs that found by King Waikew in Waigeo Island. But from the 6 eggs, just 5 eggs had crack. The last was become an egg stone till now on.


From the fifth eggs that had cracked, the 4 eggs was become men who become King of four big islands that is Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati and Misool. While the one egg became a woman, had wash away and stranded in Biak Island. That woman was born a child named Gura Besi that known as the historical man of Raja Ampat, because of his heroic story.


The regency that formed based on the constitution number 26 in 2002, is the development of Sorong regency on 12 April 2003. This area has 46.000 km2. But, 85% of this area is archipelago area. There are 610 islands in this area. But most of them have no social life. This regency has 10 districts and 85 villages with about 48.707 men. Geographically, this area has strategic location. Its boundaries is:
North side: Pacific Ocean

West Side: North Maluku

South side: Maluku Sea

East Side: Sorong Regency


For the fauna sector, Raja Ampat has rarely fauna, such as; red birds of paradise (Paradise Rubra), Wilson birds of paradise (Cicinnurs Republica), Maleo Waigeo (Spilocuscus Papuensis), and rainbow fishes. Hence, for the flora, Raja Ampat has many kinds of Orchids, Waigeo palm, ironwoods or black woods, 'keruing', 'ulin' woods, etc.


Because of its various nature profit, Raja Ampat will declared by Maritime Ministry Freddy Numberi as ancient regency, based on its location that not only rich of fishes, but also its sea herb and the pearl.






Black Papua


PAPUA


Papua is one of Indonesia province comprising a majority part of the western half of New Guinea Island and nearby. The province originally covered the entire western half of New Guinea, but in 2003, the western portion of the province, on the Bird's Head Peninsula, was declared in Jakarta as separate province named West Irian Jaya. The legality of this separation has been disputed, as it appears to conflict with the conditions of the Special Autonomy status awarded to Papua in the year 2000. The status of West Irian Jaya province is not yet resolved as of early 2006.


Papua is the official Indonesian and internationally recognized name for the province. During the colonial era the region was known as Dutch New Guinea. The province was known as West Irian or Irian Barat from 1969 to 1973, and then renamed Irian Jaya ("Victorious Irian") by Soeharto. This was the official name until Papua was adopted in 2002. Today, natives of this province prefer to call themselves Papuans rather than Irianese. This may be due to etymology (variously identified as a real etymology or a folk etymology) the name of Irian, which stems from the acronym Ikut Republik Indonesia, Anti Nederland (join/follow with the Republic of Indonesia, rejecting The Netherlands). The name West Papua is used among Papuan separatists and usually refers to the whole of the Indonesian portion of New Guinea.


The capital of Papua province is Jayapura. Most of the population depends on subsistence farming, especially the cultivation of rice and maize. The main industries include copper (with the largest concentration of copper in the world at Tembagapura), palm oil, copra, maize, groundnuts, pepper, tuna, gold, oil, coal, and phosphates. It is mostly a mountainous and forested region, with the Maoke Mountain range rising to 5,029-m/16,499 ft at Jaya Peak. The population comprises Melanesians (original settlers of Western New Guinea), Papuans, Negritos, and Europeans. Indigenous animism prevails. The province declared independence from Indonesia, as West Papua, in June 2000. However, the president of Indonesia stated that the declaration was unrepresentative of true feeling in the province.

Geographically


A central East-West mountain range dominates the geography of New Guinea, over 1600 km in total length. The western section is around 600 km long and 100 km across. Steep mountains 3000 to 4000 m and up to 5000 m high along the range ensure a steady supply of rain from the tropical atmosphere. The tree line is around 4000 m elevation and the tallest peaks are snowbound year round.


Both North and West of the central ranges the land remains mountainous mostly 1000 to 2000 m high covered by thick rain forest and a warm humid year round climate. The third major habitat feature is the southeast lowlands with extensive wetlands stretching for hundreds of kilometers.Mamberamo River sometimes referred to the "Amazon of Papua" is the province's largest river, which winds through the northern part of the province. The result is a large area of lakes and rivers known as the Lakes Plains region. The famous Baliem Valley, home of the Dani people is a tableland 1600 m above sea level in the midst of the central mountain range; Jaya Peak, sometimes known by its former Dutch name Carstensz Pyramid, is a mist covered limestone mountain peak 5030 m above sea level.




North Sulawesi



NORTH SULAWESI PROVINCE



Volcano Mountain influential to the ground fertility is the main capital economic from a province. This area is agricultural land that is chockablock trees, such as; coconut palm, clove and nutmeg. Manado, North Sulawesi capital is really busy city. Unfolding to lowland, palm hill around the wide bay, encircled by fertile tropical plant. Do a journey to beach, South Manado to Tasik Ria beach and to Tanawanko, then leave the hinterland through Taratara to plateau town Tomohon. It is famous as "Interest Town", Tomohon between the two volcanoes, Lokon and Mahawu. Hilltop area have yield of fruits, vegetable, and the flower line, which is wide such as, trumpet flower, Bougainville, lily, gladiola flower, angelic and chrysene flower. The beautifully Inspirasi hill give town view with mount as the background. Two-hour climb from Kaskasan, will reside in beautiful top of the mountain. About 36 southwestern km is Manado city, the beauty of Tondano Lake have waited. Having vehicle through the pathway in Tondano through a real interesting rural and extent of clove garden. Around the lake there are a lot of restaurant providing delicious burning fish. All plateau, like this area is shown by many resident old cottages and interesting that you have to find. From the simple cottages until interesting cottages that built from odd hardwood, you will wish to spend some nights in cold climate.


MANADO


North Sulawesi Provincial Capital, Manado is initial boundary to explore Minahasa area, which is powerful drawn. Full of cheers and affection, Minahasa people live in natty wooden house framework, with fence and Flower Park, give the impression that Manado like Europe. There are a lot of hotels and restaurants, which must be tried with hot cookery taste goal Minahasa. In this city there are many shops and markets with goods consumer and agricultural produce, while every stripper building, in a flash seen like emerald hill and blue sea. Marine Park Bunaken that famous in the world is near with offshore. Manado outbacko, the journey through Minahasa plateau will give you are eagerness to know about the places history of funeral, mount volcano, source of temperature wellspring, Tondano Lake plateau and awful scenery in fertile mountain, coffee plantation and coconut, orchid garden and rice field check stepped aside the hill. From Manado you can visit Dua Saudara Preserve, which is birdhouse and other typical animals in Sulawesi, like 'Tarsier'.


MINAHASA


Minahasa Region wide is about 1922,55 km2 with number of residents 441671 men (based on resident census in 2000). The capital of Minahasa region is Tondano, which located in plateau 700 m to sea level, encircled by magnificent hinterland with cold mountainous climate. Minahasa people trust a legend that they are the descendant of Toar and Lumimuut. The proof at the past time is Waruga, a gravestone in Sawangan Airmadidi and Watu Pinabetengan in Tompaso. At XV century, before Spain nation had arrived, a decision being taken by 7 tribe heads about division of each tribe / clump in Watu Pinabetengan. Minahasa word means merger from various tribes that taken away from word 'esa' or 'one', therefore its region named Minahasa.


TRADITIONAL MUSIC INSTRUMENTS


Minahasa people hardly love music. The famous traditional music is Bambu and Kolintang. Orchestra bamboo applies castanets that made from bamboo (exclusive bamboo), sometimes made of bronze (bamboo clarinet) or tin (bamboo zinc). Kolintang come from Minahasa area. Kolintang is looks like Xylophone (xylophone which made from wooden) and famous in all of countries.Music Bia, quad scallop-shell is other castanets that less popular, but still applied in some places in North Sulawesi.


TRADITIONAL DANCE


Maengket is common name for dance traditional drama that used in some places in Minahasa. There are 3 folk dances:Makamberu: a dance that is describing / depict when it crop and some choreographies remind at poem / love rhyme.Marambak: that is carrying out to build a new house and under developed of era in traditional value.Mah'laya; usually it is humor and generally full of joviality.There are also some other folk dances, like:Kabasaran: sometime called as "Cakalele Minahasa", what carried out as welcome dance to greet the 'Datuk' who had visited.Tumatenden: it is a nymph love story, which describes folklore of Tumatenden.Lenso Dance: it is a dance that being taken away from Maengket, where the dancers apply hand broom when they were dancing.


THE MEANING of MINAHASA SYMBOL


* Shield Form: An ability Symbol to face various challenges.

* Motto I YAYAT SUSANTI: ready with intention strive for the shake of development.

* Bird Manguni: the bird type in Minahasa, where plenty is admired by people because it can give sign if something there will be, and have deep feeling, and its eye is far sharply stare.

* Number of wings 17 sheets and 5 sheets, mean the proclamation number of Republic of Indonesia independence, which based on Five Principles.

* Chest part is coconut palm symbol, as Minahasa main commodity since former.



Beautifull place of ACEH






ACEH (NANGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM)



Aceh is rich of events, attraction and unique cultures that it will fascinate anyone. Aceh is also rich in natural beauty, waves and sea garden, which is suitable for diving. Some of most beautiful Aceh tourism and historical sites and beaches have been damaged by the massive earthquake and Dec '04 Tsunami. The name of Aceh Darussalam is come from Aceh language means the welfare and peace Aceh country. Aceh is located in the Northwestern of Sumatra Island with the area of approximately 57,365.57 km square or 12.26 % of size of Sumatra Island. It consists of 119 islands, 73 major rivers and 2 lakes.


Geographically


Aceh is surrounded by:North side: Malacca StraitEast Side: North Sumatra ProvinceSouth and the west Side: Indian Ocean. The capital of Aceh is Banda Aceh. The Special Province of Aceh with its area of 57, 365.57 square kilometers covering 1.17 per cent of Indonesia is situated at the northern tip of Sumatra Island, between latitudes 2

In the central part of this province runs Bukit Barisan Mountain ranges with Tangse, Gayo, and Alas uplands. Also, there are several mountains found in the region such as Pasee Mountain with its peak, Geureudong" (2,595 m), and Peut Sagoe (2,708 m), Gayo Mountain range with its peak Burni Telong (2,566 m), and Ucap Malu Mountain range (3,187 m). Other mountains include: Alas mountain with its peak Abong-abong (3,015 m) Leuser (3,466 m), Aceh" Raya Mountain range with its peak Seulawah Agam, (1,762 m) and Seulawah Inong Mountain (868 m).



The area also has several lakes such as Laut Tawar Lake in Central Aceh with an area of 60 square kilometers and a height of 1,225 meters above sea level, and also lake Aneuk Laot in Sabang (Weh Island).Besides the mountains and lakes, there are also several major and lesser rivers, which run into both of Malacca Strait or into the Indonesian Ocean. Among the rivers running into Malacca Straits are: Krueng Aceh (Aceh River) in the Greater Aceh Regency, Krueng Peusangan and Krueng Jambo Aye in North Aceh Regency, Krueng Baro in Pidie Regency, and Krueng Peureulak and Krueng Tamiang in East Aceh Regency; The rivers running to the Indonesian Qcean are Krueng Teunom and Krueng Meureubo in West Aceh Regency, Krueng Kluet, Krueng Simpang Kiri and Krueng Simpang Kanan in South Aceh Regency.
On the west and south coasts, there are both large and small islands, some of which are inhabited and others, which are uninhabited. These islands are Weh Island, Breuh Island, Nasi Island, Simeulue Island and Tuangke Island (Banyak Island).


Weather & Climate


The dry season in Aceh usually lasts from March through August. The rainy season starts in September to last until February. The average annual rainfall ranges from 2,000 mm to 3,000 mm, with temperatures ranging from 25 to 30° Celsius. In the highlands, the average temperature is 200 Celsius. The amount of rainfall varies between all parts of Aceh. The western and southern coasts have more rainfall than the other parts. The weather along the coastal areas is usually warm. In the mountains tend to be cooler. The humidity varies from 65 to 75 percent. The wind from the west begins in June through November while the wind from the east begins in December through May.






MALUKU



Maluku (Moluccas), a region of Indonesia formerly known as the Spice Islands, was once the source of cloves and nutmeg, spices highly valued for their aroma, preservative ability, and use in medicine before people learned how to cultivate the plants in other parts of the world. Maluku is a cluster of about one thousand islands totaling 74,504 square kilometers, forming part of the Malay Archipelago in eastern Indonesia near New Guinea. The region is divided into two provinces, Maluku with its capital in Ambon, and North Maluku (2002 estimated population 913,000), with its capital in Ternate; other important islands in the group include Halmahera, Seram, and Buru.


Its approximately 1000 islands support a population of less than 1.7 million people. The average population density figure is 19 people per-square kilometer, but the distribution is uneven. Air and sea transportation is the main means, which link the islands together. The province has 32 seaports and 20 airports, and only about 160 km of roads. However, good roads on many of the islands provide easy access to the often-remote places of tourists' interest.


Maluku lies in the transition zone between Asiatic and Australian flora and fauna and has a tropical climate. Maluku's flora includes meranti trees and many kinds of orchids; distinctive fauna includes cuscuses, birds of paradise, wild goats, and parrots. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, especially sago (the sago palm, producing a starch used in food), and on the export of such products as spices, cacao, coffee, coconuts, fish, and minerals. Important indigenous groups include the Ambonese.


A great variety of endemic plant and animal species are found in the rugged forest-covered and mountainous hinterlands of most of the islands. A few of the best known are the Rucker-tailed kingfisher, the red-crested Moluccan cockatoo, and various brilliantly colored lorikeets and parrots. Most of Maluku sits astride one of the world's most volatile volcanic belts.
GEOGRAPHICALLYMaluku province with its capital Ambon, stay at 30 north latitudes 8,300 south latitudes and 1250 - 1350 east longitudes with the area boundaries: North side: North Maluku ProvinceSouth side: Timor Leste and AustraliaWest Side: Southeast Sulawesi and Central SulawesiEast Side: Irian Jaya Province


THE WIDE AREA


The wide area of Maluku province is 712.479,69 km_, with the land wide is 54.185km_ and sea wide is 658.294,69km_. The Maluku Province plain is 85.728 km2 width or 8.572.800 Ha contain of 3 part that is:- Flat Land: 1.251.630 Ha width (14,6%)- Wavy Land: 2.417.530 Ha width (28,2%)- Hilly and Mountainous Land: 4.903.640 Ha width (57,2%)Almost, Maluku has no upland. The mountain is a back that spread in the middle of the island, forming the mountain with the highest of 3.055 m.


TOPOGRAPHY


Maluku province consists of mountains, islands that spread from west to east and form north to south among 1150 km.


GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION AREA


Administratively, Maluku Province divided into four regencies and one city that is:1. Central Maluku regency with 15 districts, 296 villages and 6 sub-districts.2. Southeast Maluku regency with 8 districts, 229 villages and 6 sub-districts.3. West-Southeast Maluku regency with 5 districts, 187 villages and 1 sub-district.4. Buru regency with 3 districts, 62 villages.5. Ambon city with 3 districts, 30 villages and 20 sub-districts.
CLIMATEMaluku has 2 seasons, that is: west season or north, and southeast or east. West season in Maluku is come from December until March, while April is transition season to southeast season. Southeast season is average 6 months begin from May and end on October. The transition to West season is on November. The homogenate seasons are give different affect to the land and its sea in this region. The temperature is about 26,2 C (in Southeast Maluku especially in rainy).





RIAU ARCHIPELAGO


Its waters are the backyard of native seafaring nomads who fish and trade for a living. Their traditional wooden sailing craft, called 'pinisi' still do the forested channels of these islands, along with other indigenous craft, fishing vessels and cargo ships which call at the archipelago's main town and Tanjung Pinang port. Tanjung Pinang lies on the largest island of Bintan archipelago. Once known as Riau, it was the heart of an ancient Malay kingdom. Today, Bintan is the latest hot spot of development in Indonesia's surging economy.


A master plan is underway to turn it into a major tourist destination. Barely an hour away from Singapore by ferry, tourist accommodation has begun to appear to take advantage of its gateway from it all appeal. It consists of Riau Archipelago, Natuna Islands and Anambas Archipelago. Originally part of Riau Province, Riau Archipelago was split off as a separate Province in July 2004 with Tanjung Pinang as its capital. Anambas Archipelago, located between mainland Malaysia and Borneo were attached to the new province. By population, the most important Riau islands are Bintan, Batam and Karimun. Size wise, however, the sparsely populated Natuna Islands are larger.


Riau Archipelago with its thousands of island has plenty of scenic beaches and diving spots, among them Trikora on Bintan and Pasir Panjang on Rupat Island. The first is about 50 kilometers south of Tanjung Pinang on the eastern side of the island. Pasir Panjang, on the northern side of Rupat facing to Malacca Strait, is stretched out natural beaches are also found on Terkulai and Soreh islands, about an hour's distance by boat from Tanjung Pinang. One of the most popular beaches is Nongsa on Batam Island. From here one can see the Singapore skyline.











LAMPUNG


Lampung province is located at the extreme of south of Sumatra is overlooked, over flown by most tourists. In the past it was well known for its marvelous 'tapi' fabrics, some using real gold thread, and for its pepper. But today, it is the location from ambitious transmigration projects, resettling farmers from over-populated Java. It boasts volcanoes, wildlife reserve, megalithic remain and a superb coastline of deep-cut bays and wonderful beaches. Its capital is Bandar Lampung, is made up of twin cities that is Teluk Betung and Tanjung Karang. Way Kambas Nature Reserve is a 130,000 ha area of swamp and lowland forest with wild elephant, tapir and many other animals.


The name of Lampung province was taken from origin Lampungnese. Before Indonesia became independent country, a resident led Lampung region and the status was as residency area (Residentie lampungche districten) with many afdeling (afdeling Teloek betoeng, afdeling metroand afdeling kotabumi). The villages/old town with traditional living characteristic could be found like sukadana, menggala, kenali, liwa, blambangan umpu etc. A part of these town bacame the capital of district. In the first of 2000 was 7 millions the population of Lampung Province. Among 10 district / town, the most population was in central Lampung with 1.901.630 and the density population was in Bandar Lampung city, 3.763 soul/km2.


GeographicallyLampung province is located between 3o 45' and 6o 45' South Latitude and between 103o 40' and 105o 50' East Longitude. This province is bordered by: North side: South Sumatra ProvinceSouth Side: Sunda StraitWest side: Bengkulu Province East side: Java Sea
Wide AreaThe wide area of Lampung province is 33,307 sq km,AdministrativellyLampung Province is divided among 4 regencies, 1 municipality and 1 administrative town with Bandar Lampung as its capital city.


Temperature


The humidity of this province is various between 50% and 86%, and the rainfall is ranges between 2,000 and 4,000 mm per year. The temperature ranges between 20o C and 34o C.


Demography


The migration flow to Lampung province is supported by the existence of heavy plantation, fishery and industry. In 1994, the total population of this province was 6,200,306 people, with its average density of 196.8 people per Km2. Compared to the average national population growth amounted to 2.144% per year, this province was on the lower level with 2.12% per year during the 1990-1994 period. The projection and composition in 1997 can be seen on the following table.


Population


Lampung society consists of two main groups, respectively has special traditional law. They are Peminggir traditional society and Pepadun traditional society. Peminggir societies, such as, Krui, Ranau, Komering, and Kayu Agung society, live along the coast And, Pepadun society, who customarily conservative, such as, Abung (Abung Siwo Migo), Pubian (Pubian Telu Suku), Tulang Bawang (Migo Pak), Buai Lima (Way Kanan), and Sungkay Bunga Mayang, live in the inland.




Klungkung


Bali's smallest district Klungkung is located between Gianyar and Karangasem, and includes the island of Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Ceningan. Klungkung itself is a bustling town. Based on the decree of the Governor of Bali Province on 1993 number 528, Nusa Penida in one of with also fixed as a tourist resort in Bali. And then base of the Regency of Klungkung Government on 1996 decree number 284 there are 18 tourist object in the regency inclusive Nusa Penida. On reaching the town centre. Klungklung was the base of the ancient Javanese Hindu Kingdom in Bali, from where the Balinese royalty of today draws its bloodline. It is the oldest kingdom in Bali, with a most exalted Kings. The famous Kertha Gosa or Royal Court of Justice was built in Klungklung in the 18th century, displays one of Bali's masterpieces. It has a wonderfully made ceiling displaying one of Bali's masterpieces (murals portraying the punishment of hell and the rewards of heaven, and elaborated in thousands of panels of puppets) all on the ceiling. Klungklung's golden glory is forever captured in its floating pavilion, elaborate garden, and charming lotus ponds. Klungklung satisfies one's wish of returning to the glory of the ancient past.



Klungkung has played a most important role in Bali's history. It was the seat of rule of Bali's history. It also seat of rule of Bali's most powerful dynasty of rajas, Dewa Agung, under whom the island was united during a glorious period of rich cultural influence. Gajah Mada, head of Majapahit, pacified and united Bali towards the end of the 13th century, incorporating the island into the Majapahit Empire. He set king Kepakisan, the first Dewa Agung "Great Deity". To rule over the island from his court at Samprangan, near the present town of Klungkung. Several generations later this seat of power was removed to nearby Gelgel, where it established much authority and prestige under the fourth succeeding Dewa Agung.




JAMBI

Jambi province is located on the east coast of Central Sumatra faces to Malaka Straits sharing borders with four other provinces in Sumatra and has long a melting pot for different ethnic groups. The earliest inhabitants were the Kubus, who were among the first wave of Malays to migrate to Sumatra. The ancient kingdom of Melayu developed and grew in Jambi and maintained relations with the mighty kingdoms of Sriwijaya, Majapahit and Singasari, but was eventually attacked and annexed by Sriwijaya in the middle of the 17th century.
Encompassingan area of 53,435 sq km, almost 60% of which is forest, the province is home to a large variety of fauna and floraand and an exhilarating place for active and adventurous visitors.

One of the greatest kingdoms in Indonesia history, the Buddhist Empire of Sriwijaya, prospered and grew along the Musi River bank in Shouth Sumatra over a thousand years ago. Located in the southern-most rim of the Shout China Sea, close to one of the world's busiest shipping lanes linking the Far East With Europe, the region's historical background is rich and colorful.



Sriwijaya Kingdom practiced a bustling and lucrative trade with ancient China its era of powerful dynasties and in 672,the Chinese scholar Tsing recorded that a thousand monks and scholars could be seen translating and studying Sanskrit in what is now become a regional capital of Palembang. However, few relics of this memorable era remain. Streching from the foothills of the mighty Bukit Barisan mountain range in the West Sumatra to Bangka and Belitung Island in the East, South Sumatra province is relatively flat but very fertile, with numerous rivers cutting across the landscape and meandering their way to the sea. Coffee and tea are grown in plantations in various parts of the province but the area's enormous wealth comes from oil, natural gas, coal, tin and quartz.


Palembang is still the gateway to the province, and together with Pangkal Pinang on Bangka Island and Tanjung Pandan on Belitung, provides the region with three major airports. All three cities have direct connections with Medan, Batam, Padang and Jakarta and the future will see the introduction of flights to Singapore. Air-conditioned buses from north and west points of Palembang are also regulary available, as well as the major cities in Java and Bali.


Geographically


Geographically, Jambi is located between 0o 45' - 2o 45' Northern Latitude and between 101o 10' - 104o 55' East Longitude. This province is bordered byNorth side: Riau provinceWest side: West SumatraEast side: Berhala StraitSouth side: Bengkulu province
Wide Area Jambi province area is 44,800 sq km width.


Administratively


Jambi Province is divided among 5 regencies and 1 municipality. TemperatureJambi Humidity is about 83%. The rainfall ranges about 1,940 - 2,941 mm per year. The temperature is range between 22.5o C and 33.6o C.


Demography


A migration flows to this province is supported by the existence of heavy plantation exertion and transmigration program. In 1994, the total population was 214,507 people, with an average density of 40.1 people per Km2. Compared to the average population growth amounted to 2.144% per year, this province is on the lower level with 1.21% per year during the 1990-1994 period.








JAKARTA

Jakarta is the capital city of the Republic of Indonesia, a country composed of more than 13,000 islands with a population of over 180 million. Comprising more than 300 ethnic groups speaking 200 different languages, the Indonesia population exhibits marked diversity in its linguistic, culture, and religious traditions. As the Capital City, Jakarta is a melting pot of representatives from each of these ethnic groups. Jakarta is a special territory enjoying the status of a province, consisting of Greater Jakarta, covering of 637.44 square km area. Located on the northern coast of West Java, it is the center of government, commerce and industry and has an extensive communications network with the rest of the country and the outside world. Strategically positioned in the archipelago, the city is also the principal gateway to the rest of Indonesia. From the Capital City, sophisticated land, air, and sea transport is available to the rest of the country and beyond.



Jakarta is one of Indonesia's designated tourist areas. It is a gateway to other tourist destinations in Indonesia and is equipped with all the means of modern transportation by air, sea, rail, or by land. It has the largest and most modern airport in the country, the most important harbor in Indonesia and is well connected by rail of good roads to other destinations in Java, Sumatra, and Bali. As Indonesia's main gateway, Soekarno-Hatta International Airport serves a growing number of international airlines and domestic flights. Jakarta is a city of contrasts; the traditional and the modern, the rich and the poor, the sacral and the worldly, often stand side by side in this bustling metropolis. Even its population gathered from all those diverse ethnic and cultural groups, which compose Indonesia, are constantly juxtaposed present reminder of the national motto; Unity in Diversity.
Finding its origin in the small early 16th century harbor town of Sunda Kelapa, Jakarta's founding is thought to have taken place on June 22, 1527, when it was re-named Jayakarta, meaning Glorious Victory by the conquering Prince Fatahillah from neighboring Cirebon. The Dutch East Indies Company, which captured the town and destroyed it in 1619, changed its name into Batavia and made it the center for the expansion of their power in the East Indies. Shortly after the outbreak of World War II, Batavia fell into the hands of the invading Japanese forces that changed the name of the city into 'Jakarta' as a gesture aimed at winning the sympathy of the Indonesians. The name was retained after Indonesia achieved national independence after the war's end.The ethnic of Jakarta called "Orang Betawi" speaks Betawi Malay, spoken as well in the surrounding towns such as Bekasi and Tangerang. Their language, Betawi Malay, has two variations: conventional Betawi Malay, spoken by elder people and bred in Jakarta, and modern Jakarta Malay, a slang form spoken by the younger generation and migrants.
Jakarta's architecture reflects to a large extent the influx of outside influences, which came and has remained in this vital seaport city. Taman Fatahillah Restoration Project, begun in the early 1970s has restored one of the oldest sections of Jakarta also known as Old Batavia to approximately its original state. The Old Portuguese Church and warehouse have been rehabilitated into living museums. The old Supreme Court building is now a museum of fine arts, which also houses part of the excellent Chinese porcelain collection of former Vice President Adam Malik. The old Town Hall has become the Jakarta Museum, displaying such rare items as Indonesia's old historical documents and Dutch period furniture. Its tower clock was once returned to England to be repaired under its lifetime guarantee, which up to now has already lasted hundreds of years.
In recent years, Jakarta has expanded its facilities for visitors with luxury hotels, fine restaurants, exciting nightlife and modern shopping centers. It contains many tourist attractions such as Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (Beautiful "Indonesia in Miniature" Park), restored colonial period buildings, island resorts in the Pula Seribu (Thousand Island), and an extensive beach recreation complex called Ancol. "Beautiful Indonesia in Miniature Park" popularly called TMII "Taman Mini Indonesia Indah", built to portray the variety of cultures found within the many islands contained in the Republic of Indonesia, this open-air museum comprises the many architectural forms of arts and traditions of all Indonesia provinces. It is proof of the country's motto of Unity in Diversity as well as Freedom of Religion depicted in the houses of worship built on the grounds.
Jakarta has preserved its past and is developing for the future. Skyscrapers in the center of the city are part of a new look. Modern luxury hotels today cater to the discriminating visitors. Transport within the city is plentiful. Jakarta is the center of the nation's industrial, political and cultural life. It is home to many of the country's finest research institutes, educational facilities, and cultural organizations. Jakarta is uniquely the seat of both the national as well as the regional government.
Over the last several decades, Jakarta has proudly developed into one of Asia's most prominent metropolitan centers. Today, Jakarta's skyline is covered by modern high rises. The many state-of-the-art shopping centers, recreation complexes and toll-roads have become hallmarks of the city. The quality of life and the general welfare of its inhabitants have improved considerably with the city's fast pace of development. Jakarta's cultural richness and dynamic growth contribute significantly to its growing importance as one of the world's leading capital cities.